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Industrial engineering

A DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

A DEFINITION OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
Industrial engineering is also operations management, systems engineering, production engineering, manufacturing engineering or manufacturing systems engineering; a distinction that seems to depend on the viewpoint or motives of the user. Recruiters or educational establishments use the names to differentiate themselves from others. In healthcare, industrial engineers are more commonly known as management engineers or health systems engineers.
Where as most engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas, industrial engineering is applied in virtually every industry. Examples of where industrial engineering might be used include shortening lines (or queues) at a theme park, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide (also referred to as Supply Chain Management), and manufacturing cheaper and more reliable automobiles. Industrial engineers typically use computer simulation, especially discrete event simulation, for system analysis and evaluation.
The name “industrial engineer” can be misleading. While the term originally applied to manufacturing, it has grown to encompass services and other industries as well. Similar fields include Operations Research, Management Science, Financial Engineering, Supply Chain, Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Management, Overall Equipment Effectiveness, Systems Engineering, Ergonomics, Process Engineering, Value Engineering and Quality Engineering.
There are a number of things industrial engineers do in their work to make processes more efficient, to make products more manufacturable and consistent in their quality, and to increase productivity.
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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING HISTORY

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING HISTORY

Industrial engineering courses had been taught by multiple universities in the late 1800s along Europe, especially in very developed countries such as Germany, France and United Kingdom, but also in Spain in the Technical University of Madrid. In the United States,the first department of industrial engineering was established in 1908 at the Pennsylvania State University by Alex Kaserman.

The first doctoral degree in industrial engineering was awarded in the 1930s by Cornell University.

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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE CURRICULUM
In the United States, the usual undergraduate degree earned is the Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering (BSIE). The typical BSIE curriculum includes introductory chemistry, physics, economics, mathematics, statistics, properties of materials, intermediate coursework in mechanical engineering, computer science, and sometimes electrical engineering, and specialized courses such as the following:
  • Systems Simulation
  • Operations Research and/or Optimization
  • Combinatorial Mathematics
  • Engineering Economy
  • Engineering Administration/Management
  • Human Factors or Ergonomics
  • Time and Motion study
  • Manufacturing Engineering
  • Production Planning and Control
  • Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • Packaging engineering
  • Facilities Design and/or Work Space Design
  • Logistics and/or Supply Chain Management
  • Statistical Process Control or Quality Control
  • Stochastic Systems
  • Discrete Event Simulation
  • Linear Programming
  • Non-Linear Programming
  • Queuing Theory
  • Probability
  • Organizational Behavior
  • Statistics
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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING POSTGRADUATE CURRICULUM

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING POSTGRADUATE CURRICULUM

The postgraduate programmes in industrial engineering have long been held as probably the most diversified programme across industries. The usual postgraduate degree earned is the Master of Science in Industrial Engineering/Industrial Engineering & Management/Industrial Engineering & Operations Research. The typical MS in IE/IE&M/IE & OR curriculum includes:
  • Operations Research/Optimization Techniques
  • Operations Management
  • Supply Chain Mgmt & Logistics
  • Simulation & Stochastic Models
  • Manufacturing Systems
  • Engineering Economics
  • Corporate Planning
  • Human Factors Engineering/Ergonomics
  • Productivity Improvement
  • Production Planning and Control
  • Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • Material Management
  • Facilities Design and/or Work Space Design
  • Statistical process control Statistical Process Control or Quality Control
  • Time and Motion Study
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Industrial engineering

The historical perspective of the industrial revolutions and the production systems

The historical perspective of the industrial revolutions and the production systems
Since the industrial revolution during the 19th and 20thcentury different production methods have dominated. On an overall level these methods can be grouped as craftsmanship, mass production and lean production, each with particular type of technology, work organization, production solutions, how to handle different product variants, and quality aspects.
Material and processes to develop products have a very long history, that is the case of casting, grinding, and forging which can be dated back 6000 years or more. The first attempts towards factory systems are described from ancient Rome. The Romans had what could be called factories to produce weapons, ceramic, glass ware, and some other products. It was not until the 19th century that real development towards the production systems of today started, when what we can call factory systems were developed. This development is frequently referred to as the industrial revolution.
Starting with the first industrial revolution in the 18th century, a big technical development occurred during the 19th and 20th century. The mechanization and automation in machines, equipment and tools increased tremendously. The prerequisites for mass production in the 20th century were covered with machines producing identical components and the utilization of capacity became an important factor to work with. The consequences from that were a need to develop new methods for planning of production, material supply and information.
The first industrial revolution
It took place during the period 1760-1830 with important changes that affect the development of systems to produce products. Inventions like the steam engine, the use of machine tools and the development within the textile industry were remarkable. This happened in parallel with the development of the fabrication system where factory workers were organized based on new principles for division of labor. This period also marks the transition from an economy based on agriculture to an economy based on industrial activities.
A significant discovery was the principle of division of labor that consist in the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. A great part of the changes carried our during the 19th and 20th century were based on this principle.
Gradually a need to coordinate, and also to control, the various operations emerged and entire production process became centralized and located in factory areas.
The second industrial revolution
The technical background to the development of the assembly system was the introduction of standardized and interchangeable parts. While England was leading the industrial revolution, the concept of interchangeable parts was introduced in the United States. In 1797 Eli Whitney (1765-1825) negotiated with the American government and received a contract for the production of 10,000 muskets. He believed he could produce parts accurately enough to permit parts assembly without fitting of each weapon. In this way the time required for production could be considerable reduced. After several years of development in his factory he traveled to Washington to demonstrate the principle of interchangeable parts.
The principle of interchangeable parts revolutionized the methods for manufacturing and constituted a prerequisite for mass production. Development of specialized production equipment made if possible to produce identical components for the assembly of complete muskets. Later on the manufacturing technique spread from the weapons industry to Singer, the company manufacturing sewing machines.
Ford’s production system from the early 20th century is often associated with the introduction of the assembly line in the manufacturing industry. The first movable assembly line in Ford’s factory was put into operation in 1913, but technology had been developed long before.

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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MAKE SYSTEMS PRODUCTIVE

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS MAKE SYSTEMS PRODUCTIVE

What Really Is Industrial Engineering?
It is a difficult definition because other jobs are easy to describe:

  • Doctors make people well
  • Electrical engineers work with electricity
  • Teachers teach
  • Civil engineers build roads and bridges
  • Firemen put out fires

Here’s the best suggestion Institute of Industrial Engineers has heard:

People always ask “What is Industrial Engineering?” And to that question there is no real reply, we are found everywhere, doing everything. Industrial Engineering is about “process engineering” rather than “product engineering” which gives up a difficult job description. The best answer is the simplest one… Industrial Engineers make systems productive.

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Industrial engineering

DEFINITIONS ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

DEFINITIONS ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Here are some extremely wordy definitions which attempt to say the same thing
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineers focus on systems and how system components fit together. They often are the people who lead the way in understanding how to use the finite resources of the world to the maximum advantage. Industrial engineers must understand people as well as technology. Consequently, industrial engineering draws upon a variety of different disciplines, from mathematics to psychology, from communications to computer science, from production management to process control.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of integrated systems of people, material, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineering (IE) is about choices. Other engineering disciplines apply skills to very specific areas. Industrial engineering gives you the opportunity to work in lots of different kinds of businesses. The most distinctive aspect of industrial engineering is the flexibility that it offers. Whether it’s shortening a rollercoaster line, streamlining an operating room, distributing products worldwide, or manufacturing superior automobiles… It’s all in a day’s work for an industrial engineer.
What is Industrial Engineering?
Industrial engineers determine the most effective ways for an organization to use the basic factors of production—people, machines, materials, information, and energy—to make or process a product or produce a service. They are the bridge between management goals and operational performance. They are more concerned with increasing productivity through the management of people, methods of business organization, and technology than are engineers in other specialties, who generally work more with products or processes.
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Industrial engineering

ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

ABOUT INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Industrial engineering (IE) is all about choices – it is the engineering discipline that offers the most wide- ranging array of opportunities in terms of employment, and it is distinguished by its flexibility. While other engineering disciplines tend to apply skills to very specific areas, Industrial Engineers may be found working everywhere: from traditional manufacturing companies to airlines, from distribution companies to financial institutions, from major medical establishments to consulting companies, from high-tech corporations to companies in the food industry.
Industrial Engineering is the only engineering discipline with close links to management – many Industrial Engineers (IE’s) move on to successful careers in management. Also, if you think that one day you will start and run your own company, an Industrial Engineering program will provide you with the best training for this – regardless of what the company will actually do!
So what do Industrial Engineers do?
In very simple terms, while engineers typically make things, IE’s figure out how to make or do things better. This is what gives IE’s so much flexibility – as you can imagine, everyone would like to do things better! IE’s are primarily concerned with two closely related issues: productivity and quality. They address these two issues by looking at integrated systems of machines, human beings, information, computers and other resources. A variety of skills and techniques are used to design and operate such systems in the most productive way possible, while continuously improving them and maintaining the highest levels of quality. IE’s make significant contributions to their employers by making money for them while, at the same time, making the workplace better for fellow workers.
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Industrial engineering

WHAT IS METHODS ENGINEERING?

WHAT IS METHODS ENGINEERING?

A technique used by progressive management to improve productivity and reduce costs in both direct and indirect operations of manufacturing and non-manufacturing business organizations. Methods engineering is applicable in any enterprise wherever human effort is required. It can be defined as the systematic procedure for subjecting all direct and indirect operations to close scrutiny in order to introduce improvements that will make work easier to perform and will allow work to be done smoother in less time, and with less energy, effort, and fatigue, with less investment per unit. The ultimate objective of methods engineering is profit improvement. See also Operations research; Productivity.

Methods engineering includes five activities: planning, methods study, standardization, work measurement, and controls. Methods engineering, through planning, first identifies the amount of time that should be spent on a project so as to get as much of the potential savings as is practical. Invariably the most profitable jobs to study are those with the most repetition, the highest labor content (human work as distinguished from mechanical or process work), the highest labor cost, or the longest life-span. Next, through methods study, methods are improved by observing what is currently being done and then by developing better ways of doing it. The standardization phase includes the training of the operator to follow the standard method. Then the number of standard hours in which operators working with standard performances can do their job is determined by measurement. Finally, the established method is periodically audited, and various management controls are adjusted with the new time data. The system may include a plan for compensating labor that encourages attaining or surpassing a standard performance.

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Industrial engineering

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part one)

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part one)

Industrial engineering thrives on systems perspectives just as systems thrive on Industrial Engineering approaches. One cannot treat topics of Industrial Engineering without recognizing systems perspectives and vice versa. A generic definition of Industrial Engineering, adopted by the Institute of Industrial Engineers (IIE) states:

“Industrial Engineer – One who is concerned with the design, installation, and improvement of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment, and energy by drawing upon specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences, together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such systems”.

The above definition embodies the various aspects of what an industrial engineer does. Although some practitioners find the definition to be too convoluted, it nonetheless describes an industrial engineer. As can be seen, the profession is very versatile, flexible, and diverse. It can also be seen from the definition that a systems orientation permeates the work of industrial engineers.