Industrial engineering

Productivity and industrial engineering

Productivity and industrial engineering
What is productivity?
Applied in an enterprise, a sector of economic activity or the economy as a whole, productivity may be defined as an output and input relation.
The term productivity can be used to asses or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input. This may appears simple enough in cases where both the output and the input are tangible and can be easily measured; however, in cases where intangibles are introduced measure of productivity can be more difficult.
Calculation of productivity
Productivity can be calculated as follows:
Productivity and industrial engineering in goods production
In the case of goods production, the objective is the manufacturing to a better cost, through the raw material, with productivity of the primary resources of production: Materials, human resources and machines. It’s on these, where the action of industrial engineers should address their efforts. Increasing productivity indexes and reducing production costs, are fundamental tasks of an industrial engineer.

Commercial Real Estate Property

How To Create Value In the Real Estate Work As a Professional?

How To Create Value in the Real Estate Work As a Professional?

A real estate industry belongs to deal in sale and purchase of lands, homes, farms, shops, apartments, flats and related things. In modern world, it is fruitful business to expand income and made asserts. People in different parts of the world involve in this business. The professional in the real estate business known as brokers, agents and realtors. Realty is the short form of real estate or people who belong with this business known as realtors. Real estate business practice in different parts of the world with local and traditional styles of dealing.However, Paperwork and legal matters done on legal papers and people deal whenever both parties agree on one point. In globalization the dynamics of real estate business change because free world force people to be a professional and investors around the world where ever they want to work and invest money. Information and technology guide people to invest on an international level in realty sectors.Countries like the United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, The United Estates, Canada, American Islands, Qatar, Some East Asian countries and some South Amercian countries like Brazil and Chile, Turkey, Euope, Malaysia, India, Pakistan and China invited real estate investors to investment their own countries. Now these countries real estate market values is in billion dollars.The main investors in real estate industries a are all countries and particularly people from china, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Russia and east Asian countries would like to invest in India, Pakistan, Turkey, Europe, Canada and UK. The Impact of real estate business worldwide encourage professionals to gain professional knowledge, training and academic education to work in real estate industry to creates value in real estate work. The ingredients of real estate work values are dealing, marketing and communications, Legal and paperworks, law and ethics.

The Basic Knowledge or formal education about real estate works is the first step to create values

 In the real estate or modern real estate professionals are coming as a diploma holders and degree holders in real estate subjects. Because multinational organizations are offering jobs. However, They are asking requirements with the basic and professional knowledge. Companies in many countries want professional education and skills of computer, internet and customer service experience.
Professional education is important to work in United Kingdom, United Estates, Canada and United Arab Emirates and Dubai. Because these countries are the hub of business and companies spends billions of $ dollars on mega real estate projects. However, In Real Estate Companies there are no training programs for professionals. As there is no such culture on workplace to meet current job challenges for professionals. If we talk third world or developing countries people start working in real estate without formal education. However, They look more confident on workplace because they do deal in real world. That’s why professional works in the industry better than people who have formal education. Moreover, The formal education is now important to learn if you want to become a real estate professional. Formal education gives boost to deal with investors and general real estate clients.

Basic understanding with real estate tools on work place

As a professional you need to understand basic things in real estate on work place. These things are about formalities about work. What you are dealing in, what is your Products and details about your projects. Understanding with your products give you more knowledge about product and then you can explain better to your clients if you have enough knowledge about your products in term of product sizes, value in prices and understanding with area and services which a society is providing to clients on specific place.

Knowledge about Market

It is very important to understand the behavior of real estate market. What’s going on outside of your office. Required more knowledge of area, services and prices of the property. Knowledge about market helps you to communicate and impact on clients as a good professional by understanding with realty and prices of the property. You can gain this knowledge by communicating with brokers on call and go on google and find out the prices of the properties. Wrong prices coding can create a negative impact on clients because if you create a big difference in the price of property may be your client go somewhere else.

Select a Specific Area

 In the biggest real estate market if you work in the specific city is trying to focus on one or two specific areas and focus it what’s going on there in term of sales and purchases. The selection of specific area gives you the confidence and knowledge about that market and you will feel free to communicate with your clients and general investors. All this thing creates value in your work and you will hold your clients.

Creates Value on Your Listings

Once you understand the basic knowledge about your real estate works. Create smart listings for your clients with specific headlines where you can include area, nature of property, city and price. In the description you must give a complete sight of the property in 3 line story.Put complete information and advertise.

Use of social media and Internet

 You must have knowledge of social media websites such as,, Instagram, interest, Medium,, google, personal websites i.e. etc.In modern real estate if you have own listings, then the knowledge of social networks help you to promote it for many customers as you want. In social media you must know how to target your customers. The usage of the internet gives you freedom to engage your customers online on the internet with the help of, and

Build Your Physical Network in the Real Estate Community

As this area belongs to information. If as a professional you have knowledge of social media and marketing. You can build an online network.However, You must have to build physical network with your colleagues on the phone, face to face from one market to another market and also in international market by communicating on the phone. This will give to communication and public relations. It also creates a unique value on your work. 

Face to face deal

Customers come to your work place regarding your listings. This is a place where your expertise is tested. This is a time where you can judge your creativity. Dealing with customers on a face to face helps you to complete the deal. As a professional you have to be polite, friendly, Informative, knowledgeable and expert to complete the deal and explain the legality of real estate paperwork i.e. taxes, commission and final price of the realty for you sellers and buyers.

Be Patience and Persistence

Real estate business is a money generating business.However, It required patients to deal and communicate with clients. Everyday as a realtor or broker you have to meet and see new face with different mindsets and behaviors. You have to deal with them to remain a good professional and create your presence among employees on workplace. Your patients and persistence show your level of maturity. More relax and confidence give your work creativity and value of work 

11 Things Create Impact and gives Value of your professionism

  1. Proper basic formal education
  2. Information and knowledge of real estate
  3. Experience in realty work
  4. Expertise of specific area in realty
  5. Creativity in Listings
  6. Building own networks 
  7. Be resistance 
  8. Confidence to face clients 
  9. Usage of Social Networks 
  10. Good Customer Realtions Skills 
Industrial engineering

Definition of safety and industrial hygiene

Definition of safety and industrial hygiene
Safety at work
According to Bestratén (1999), safety at work is “the set of techniques and procedures that are designed to eliminate or reduce the risk of accidents.”
Therefore, safety at work is concerned with addressing a number of hazards that affect industrial accidents, such as:
  • Electrical hazards;

  •  Lack of mechanisms of protection against moving parts of machinery, equipment and tools;
  •  Falls of heavy objects;

  • Poor conditions of order and cleanliness in the workplace;
  • Fire Hazards
To achieve safety at work, we should develop preventive actions that fall within both general and specific rules, such as:
  • The mission and vision of the company;
  • The safety policies;
  • Procedures at work;
  • Staff training;
  • Incorporation of safety devices on machines, equipment and facilities.
Industrial hygiene
According to Hernandez and Marti (1989), industrial hygiene is the discipline that aims the prevention of occupational diseases by controlling chemical, physical or biological agents in the working environment.
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water.
In order to reduce occupational risks of emerging pollutants, three objectives are established:

  1. Controls on the origin and source of danger;
  2. Controls on the path between the hazard and the worker;
  3. Controls on the subject exposed to danger.
Commercial Real Estate Property

How Commercial Real estate works in different parts of the world?

How Commercial Real estate works in different parts of the world?

Commercial Real Estate,world
Commercial Real Estate

What is Commercial Real Estate Is?

Commercial properties or real estate commercial is a term used for commercial properties it includes lands, shops, shopping malls, apartments and plazas for commercial use and avoid for resident activities. Commercial properties specifically use for business activities in the given properties. Commercial properties are specifically for business purposes and people usually like to purchase commercial properties to secure their saving and make profit from their investments. Commercial properties, work and gives benefits when residential area use for livings. Residential developments bring commercial activities in specific areas and without residential activities there are valid low chance of commercial real estate success. Commercial real estate is the best realty for high profits. There are two kinds of commercial real estate markets where people usually invest.

Small Commercial Real Estate

Small commercial real estate is a term used for small commercial projects where people construct or develop commercial shops or plazas for specific residential areas. The price value of a small commercial real estate is low and profit margin is also low. It requires low profit and small paperwork.

Largest Commercial Real Estate

The large commercial real estate includes the commercial real estate in the big ground or big markets. In the United states, United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Dubai the term “High Street” is used for commercial areas and markets. Commercial real estate in high streets is a group of different business activities and Such activities includes restaurants, shopping malls, apartments, hotels, medical stores, retail shops, coffee shops, electronic products, cafes, and sports products.High streets, chowke, markets and shopping centers consider an expensive commercial real estate. Commercial real estate in such areas has high capital value, rents and profit margin because it attracts pubic every day and every hour of the day. Such commercial real estate requires high capital and saving to purchase such properties.

The Value of Commercial Real Estate Market

Commercial real estate Market collectively has a big market in every part of the world. Deloitte 2019 “Commercial Real Estate Industry Outlook” link below describe the value of commercial real estate market in 2019.Commercial real estate market is different in different part of the world. Every big city like NewYork, Taxes, Tronto, Sydney, Singapur, Begging, Tokyo, Karachi, London, Pairs, Berlin, Dubai, Mumbai and Hong Kong have big commercial real estate market.The value of the commercial real estate market in such cities is in trillion of dollars and billion of dollars required to invest in such real estate markets. Big Market or space always demands a big requirement to get in. Big commercial real estate markets works in under a system. We need to follow a system in the commercial real estate market.

How to get into commercial real estate

Real Estate business is a dry fruit for every individual and investor. Real estate market always progresses whether there is a recession and condition is normal in economic markets. People who have commercial or residential properties consider a lucky person and known as landlord in human societies.Everyone wants to be a landlord specially people in 3rd world would love to buy commercial real estate and residential real estate. Most of individuals move United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Australia for earning and they send most shares of their income to the homelands for purchase properties. Now for those who are going to invest or get into commercial real estate. They have questions in their minds “How to get into Commercial Real Estate”.

First, They need capital or saving and big heart for investment in the real estate business. Big heart because new investor usually unable the dynamics of real estate investment. Commercial real estate investment is different to residential real estate investment.

Secondly,”Commercial real estate research” is required for new beginner in the commercial real estate market. Commercial real estate research is important to understand the system of reality. In modern days, Commercial real estate research is a simple process to understand and find out the answers of the question regarding commercial real estate markets and investment opportunities. An individual can use the services of the internet. there are million of websites, videos, expert advices and blogs are available for guidance. There are few blogs “DUNSTABLE PROPERTY BLOG,Shez Global realty“,Farm properties are helpful blog to help you get into commercial real estate.

Thirdly, Social media tools are helpful to understand the system of the commercial real estate market. Everyone use internet and social media networks and it is the best source of information.

Fourth and final step to “How to get into the commercial real estate market” is interaction with realtors. Realtor is the term use for real estate professionals. They also known as real estate agents, brokers, advisors and consultants. In modern world real estate professionals are highly professional and keep complete knowledge of all kind of real estate properties work. Some real estate brokers are only work in commercial real estate fields so for new beginners and investors they are useful for supports.

Difference between developing and developed commercial real estate

There are two kinds of commercial properties consider in the real estate and known as developing and developed real estate.

Developing Commercial Real Estate

Developing commercial real estate means a commercial area includes land, shops, malls and apartments in the form of non develop areas. Developing commercial real estate or search real estate listings advertise for future developments. Developing real estate takes time to be developed.Usually such commercial real estate projects takes 3 to 5 fives years for completion. Developing commercial real estate capital wise low in price and takes long time to get profit. Many companies and project design with low price and most of design down payment and give installment plans of 3 for five years. This kind of commercial real estate is a slow process. However, It gives the person honor of the landlord.  

Developed Commercial Real Estate

A developed commercial real estate completely constructed and developed and ready to move for owners. A commercial property ready to move and ready for rent for owners consider a developed commercial real estate. Developed real estate in expensive in term of capital and ready to give profit in the share of sales and purchase of property or in the shape of rents. The Value of such properties increase day by day. Moreover, It is a expensive in purchase. Developed real estate attracts tenants and business. 

Industrial engineering

Industrial Accidents and industrial safety

Industrial Accidents and industrial safety
The industrialization process has brought a large number of problems; one of them is related to industrial accidents. With advances in industrial processes, new type of dangers to life, limb and health are being increasingly introduced. Everyday employees are injured in factories due to accidents. The accidents may be caused as a result on any kind of unsafe activity, or act in their part or chance occurrences, or as a result of some unsafe working conditions or unsafe act of employees themselves, or defective plant or shop layout. The pain and suffering of the injured as well as the emotional loss to the victims of the accidents causing permanent disabilities are impossible to be summed up and evaluated.
What’s the definition of accident?
The most agreed definition of accident is “It is an unplanned and uncontrolled event which causes or is likely to cause an injury”.
Types of accidents in industry
Accidents in industry can be classified using different criteria. Specific classifications are shown in the next lines.
According to causes of events
Machine accidents
Machines are responsible for a large number of accidents in an industry. Depending on the way harm is caused, accidents from machines can be classified into the following groups:
  • Contact: physical contact of the body with any moving part of a machine;
  • Impact: parts of the body are violently hit by moving parts of machines;
  • Traps: parts of the body coming between the moving parts which mostly lead to crushing of parts of body trapped;
  • Ejection of particles: parts projected at high velocity from the machine, which causes serious injury when they hit the parts of the moving body.
Non machine accidents
In this type we include:
Fall of persons which can be due to
  • Tripping over obstacles on ground
  • Slipping due to oily or greasy substances
  • Running inside the shop, sudden fear or excitement
Fall from a height which can be due to
  • Lack of firm foot hold or unsafe postures
  • Working on a machine at a height
  • Leaning from ladder to reach a distant object
  • Strike against the objects
  • Pushes by other persons on the slop
According to length of recovery
  • Lost time accidents:lost time accidents are those in which worker loses a day or shift in which accident occurred. These require payment of compensation to employee to employer.
  • Home-case accidents:in this type of accidents, worker loses the remainder of shift or turn on which the accident has occurred.
  • First aid cases:in these, workers receive first aid attention at plant hospital and then returns to their job.
According to nature of injury
  • Fatal accidents:in which the worker or more are killed.
  • Permanent disablement:which incapacitate an employee and makes it impossible for him to engage in any work, which was capable of performing at the time of the accident.
  • Temporary disablement:this reduces the earning capacity of an individual in the employment.

Commercial Real Estate Property

How Important is Insurance in Commercial Real Estate Property Investment?

How Important is Insurance in Commercial Real Estate Property Investment?

Insurance in Commercial Real Estate Property Investment

Insurance In Commercial Real Estate Property

Insurance is a term use to protect different assets, tangible or non tangible things in the modern world. People in different parts of the world like to insure their expensive things, i.e. laptops, mobile phones, human life, home insurance and car insurance etc.The aim to insured things to overcome financial losers in real life. In first world the concept of insurance is very popular and people like to complete the process of insurance while in developing and underdeveloped countries the concept of insurance is new. Adrian Flux, State Farm,Commercial Combined Insurance, State Farm, Berkshire Hathaway, Liberty Mutual, Allstate Nationwide, Zurich etc. known as the top insurance companies in the united states and different parts of the world.

What is Insurance in Real Estate?

 Insurance in real estate is a system to protect assets like lands, shops, apartments and shopping malls. The world is unpredictable and environment is changing and human can only inform. while human are unable to protect equipments. Insurance is a term used to protect assets. The are different organizations which run real estate insurance. they have monthly and annual fees and when something happens in properrties these companies overcome the losses of individuals.

Why Commercial Insurance in Real Estate is Important?

Commercial real estate is always expensive in term of investments. People invest capital to get high returns in term of rents. Investment is the result of individual savings of the life. In world we can predicts natural disasters and can not protect completely human lives, structure and buildings. However, In real estate building can protects from natural disasters like in Japan or Indonesia consider the home of earthquakes there real estate building protects and build within the protection system. In Japan building are safe and flexible in earthquakes. Still tsunami and fire incidents can damage building. In commercial real estate such damages effects owners and tanents both.

Insurance in developing commercial real estate

Developing commercial real estate includes properties in structure and raw forms. Developing real estate is in the beginning process and loss of properties is lower than developed properties. Developing real estate includes land and building structure. land and gray structure can be damaged with low construction material and can be damaged with low quality work.It is very important for investors and general clients in insured land or building if they are buying after completion or going to construct themselves. In this type of real estate, insurance rates is low and give complete benefits. If land is not solid it takes high expensive, whereas, after following all procedures sometimes building can damage for many reasons such as storms, Floods, earthquakes etc. It’s important to complete insurance process to protect the investment.

Insurance in Developed Commercial Real Estate

The developed commercial real estate includes commercial properties, i.e. shops, flats, studios, apartments, shopping malls and plazas. Developed commercial real estate is 10% expensive for developing real estate. Developed real estate takes time to complete the construction process. It is more important than developing real estate because of time and investment of individuals. Insurance is every essential for developed real estate to protect an individual asset.

What are commercial real estate, insurance rates?

In different parts of the world insurance rates are different from country to country, and complete with local currencies. In united kingdom home insurance starts from 100£ per year to 2000£ per years depend on the locations and value of the building and properties. In the united states it starts from 500$ to 1000$ per year.

Who are Commercial Real Estate Insurance Providers?

There are different insurance public and private companies provide different services of insurance in different parts of the world. Insurance companies works nationally and internationally i.e. The Hartford, Insure on, Insurance321, Nationwide and Allstate etc.

6 factors that affect the cost of business property insurance include:

Safety and Security
Size of Business Premises
Age of Building
Type of Equipment
Age of Equipment


Top 25 Insurnace comapnies provide Services

The are top 25 companies which provide insurance services globally 

1. State Farm
2. Berkshire Hathaway
3. Liberty Mutual
4. Allstate
5. Progressive
6. Travelers
7. Chubb
9. Farmers
10. Nationwide
11. AIG
12. Zurich
13. Hartford
14. CNA
15. AmTrust Group
16. American Family
17. Auto Owners Group
18. Erie Insurance
19. Tokio Marine
20. American Financial
21. W.R. Berkley
22. Assurant
23. Fairfax Financial Holdings
24. Cincinnati Financial
25. Markel Corporation
Source :

Industrial engineering

About occupational health and safety

About occupational health and safety
Occupational health and safety is relevant in all branches of industry, business and commerce including traditional industries, information technology companies, care homes, schools, universities, leisure facilities and offices.
Occupational health and safety affects all aspects of work, that’s why high hazard manufacturing plant requires many different specialists, such as engineers (industrial, electrical, mechanical and civil), lawyers, medical doctors and nurses, trainers, work planners and supervisors, may be required to assist the professional health and safety practitioner in order to ensure that there are satisfactory health and safety standards.
Generally, there are many obstacles in the process of achieve good health and safety standards. The pressure of production or performance targets, financial constraints and the complexity of the organization are typical examples of such obstacles. However, there are powerful incentives for organizations to strive for high health and safety standards. These incentives are moral, legal and economic.
The corporate responsibility and the relation with occupational health and safety
Corporate responsibility, a term used extensively in our days, covers a wide range of issues. It includes the effects that an organization’s business has on the environment, human rights and common welfare. Health and safety in the workplace is an important corporate responsibility issue.
One definition of corporate responsibility
Corporate responsibility has various definitions, however, broadly speaking it covers the ways in which organizations manage their core business to add social, environmental and economic value in order to produce a positive, sustainable impact on both society and the business itself. Terms such as corporate social responsibility and socially responsible business refer to this concept.
In terms of corporate responsibility, organizations must work in order to:
  • improve management systems to reduce injuries and ill health
  • demonstrate the importance of health and safety issues at board level
  • report publicly on health and safety issues within their organization, including their performance against targets.
Effective management of health and safety:

  • is vital to employee well-being
  • has a role to play in enhancing the reputation of businesses and helping them achieve high-performance teams
  • is financially beneficial to business.
Commercial Real Estate Property

What Are 10 Skills Realtor Need To Improve In Real Estate Profession For Life Time

What Are The10 Skills Realtor Need To Improve In Real Estate Profession For Life Time?
10 Realtos Skills


10 Skills Realtor Need To Improve In Real Estate Profession For Life Time

In modern real estate where realty business is a profit generating business for many people and organizations. Realtors require professional qualifications and expertises to work in the industry. Today we are here to discuss the 10 realtor skills on workplace to become a successful professional in the real estate business


Research is the part and parcel of the every business. In professional life every individual need to research on business or profession. In realty business professionals need to research on real estate business, commercial and residential properties to understand the nature of project in term of areas, markets and prices of different listings. Research on the market is important because it helps a professional to explain the complete picture of realty listings for customers and investors.  

Organizational Planning

Organization planning includes the daily routine work within the office. If as a professional you are responsible to manage the office of the realty you need to manage things. It includes different departments i.e. Accounts, HR, Marketing, IT,Social Media and publication related to properties.

Confidence and Persistence 

Confidence and persistence is very important to face customers and investors on the workplace. It is a personal expertise which achieve with knowledge and practice. More and more information and study helps to gain confidence in real estate work. Whereas, Interaction with customers and knowledge of listings or knowledge of the field helps a professional to gain confidence. Real estate is not an easy job. However, It’s a profitable business but it takes time to get success.It is very important for realtors or brokers to be a persistent on workplace to get a success.

Computer Knowledge

Computer knowledge includes the usage of Microsoft Words, Spreadsheets, Power Point etc. It also includes the use of social media, i.e. Google, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Pinterest in modern real estate. Because social media helps realtor to get listing an clients. All form of social media are important to learn in modern world. Moroever, Real estate firms use websites and listing websites to find clients and investors. In this case if a realtor have understanding with computer then its a helpful to get success in real estate business.  

People Skills

It includes the handling of subordinates and work related people inside and outside organization. Moreover, People skills include conversation on phone, emails and face to face. 

Self Discipline

It’s a personal expertise of an individual at work where how an individual behave with other professionals on workplace and outside the organization. Moroever, Self discipline includes the activities of a realtor related on work about his timing in the office and arrangement of listing for clients and customers.  

The Art of Negotiation 

 Skills Real estate dealing or negotiations is an art in the realty industry because of money and high profit involve. Every brokers want to earn profit and where profit involves there people forget the ethics of business. The real estate market is different in different parts of the world and it does not mean ethics are same in all parts of the world. Moreover, As a real estate agent income and number of deals determined the ability to close the deal. Dealing and negotiations are an art and takes time to learn.
Please Read More about “The Art of Negoation Skills”

What is “The Art of Negotiation in Realty”, Basic learning for realtors and customers?

What is “The Art of Negotiation in Realty”, Basic learning for realtors and customers?

Interview Techniques 

To learn and expertise of interview techniques is very important for realtors to learn. It requires inside an office for the selection of candidates on workplace and secondly, Deal with customers and investors in beginning to understand “what customers are looking for in term of properties”. There are three kinds of interview techniques are important in the real estate business.  


It’s an interview where a real estate customer asks about information related to properties. As a realtor you have to ask basic questions about customer choice in term of residential and commercial properties. Realtors need to ask simple questions to attract customer to meet face to face.  

Interview on Phone

 Modern day people inquire about listing on phone rather than go and meet realtors face to face in until convesation. Realtors need to learn the art of interview to attract customers. Realstor Need to provide basic information about property to get clients to meet him face to face.

 Face to Face Interview

Realtor needs to be very friendly with customers when they meet face to face. Here realtors need to explain each and everything about the properties. More and more information about area, property, price and real estate market help realtor to go through with customers. 

Problem Solving

Skills Problem solving skills include dealing, prices and paperwork where customers usually make arguments with realtors. So realtors need to complete all work to avoid such issues on the workplace


Mathematics includes plus, minuses and percentage.Realtors need to command on maths because customers only understand the language of full figures rather than math in parts. Investors just want to get information of profit and loss in whole numbers. This is where an investor ready to invest in real estate. Moreover, Realtors need to be specific about Return on Investment (ROI) before explaining to investors and real estate customers. 


Industrial engineering

Basic definitions related to occupational health and safety

Basic definitions related to occupational health and safety
Some basic and powerful definitions related to occupational health and safety are the following:
Related to the protection of the bodies and minds of people from illness resulting from the materials, processes or procedures used in the workplace.
Related to the protection of people from physical injury. The borderline between health and safety is ill-defined and the two words are normally used together to indicate concern for the physical and mental well-being of the individual at the place of work.
Related to the provision of facilities to maintain the health and well-being of individuals at the workplace. Welfare facilities include washing and sanitation arrangements, the provision of drinking water, heating, lighting, eating and rest rooms. First aid arrangements are also considered as welfare facilities.
Occupational or work-related ill-health
Is concerned with those illnesses or physical and mental disorders that are either caused or triggered by workplace activities. Such conditions may be induced by the particular work activity of the individual or by activities of others in the workplace. The time interval between exposure and the onset of the illness may be short or long.
Environmental protection
Related to the arrangements to cover those activities in the workplace which affect the environment and, possibly, the health and safety of employees and others.
Defined as any unplanned event that results in injury or ill health of people, or damage or loss to property, plant, materials or the environment or a loss of a business opportunity.
Near miss
Is any incident that could have resulted in an accident.
Dangerous occurrence
It’s a near miss which could have led to serious injury or loss of life.
Hazard and risk
  • A hazard is the potential of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. Hazards take many forms including, for example, chemicals, electricity and working from a ladder.
  • A risk is the likelihood of a substance, activity or process to cause harm. A risk can be reduced and the hazard controlled by good management.
The difference between hazard and risk
It is very important to distinguish between a hazard and a risk – the two terms are often confused and activities such as construction work are called high risk when they are high hazard. Although the hazard will continue to be high, the risks will be reduced when controls are implemented.
The residual risk
The level of risk remaining when controls have been adopted is known as the residual risk. There should only be high residual risk where there is poor health and safety management and inadequate control measures.
Commercial Real Estate Property


Add caption


5C’s of the credit is a term use in business to get funding from banks and other financial institutions for business purposes. Now these 5C, S also use in the real estate business, especially when someone buys homes, houses, land, shops and flats etc. in commercial or residential properties. The concept of 5C’S is very keen in USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Singapore, Hongkong and Dubai etc. where lenders take serious before offering funds to individuals and companies.







5C’S is the framework used by many traditional lenders to evaluate potential borrowers. In many countries, institutions take these steps very seriously. However, There are not strict guidelines in many countries. Even in online lenders use simple proprietary to determine a borrower’s application for credit by analyzing finances and other data, such as different social media accounts.

1)  CHARACTER; Refers to borrowers reputation for repaying debits

Character  of any individual is very important to descibe himself or herself in front of people or insitituon in every aspect of life.In business “Character” refers to borrowers reputation for repauying debits.Lenders think barrower’s gerneral trustworthiness,credibility and personality in the form of first “W” what is it?

Why? It matters becasue financial institutions want to lend to people who are responsible in deal and keep things to fulfill commitments.

H;How it’s assessed?
Lenders assessed borrowers charater from references,repuation and nteraction with lenders.

2)  CAPACITY; Measures borrower’s ability to repay a loan

Capacity or cash flow measure borrower’s ability to repay loans and lenders review borrower’s hoistory before decision.

Lenders use What,Why and How to complete this step.

“W”,What it is?  includes the ability to repay loans

“W”,Why it matters? A business must generate enough cash flow to repay the loan. Loans are a form of debt.

“H”,How it’s assessed: History it includes financial metrics and benchmarks (debt and liquidity ratios, cash flow statements), credit score, borrowing and repayment history.

“H”,How to master it? It metters in online and local banking differently.Online some lenders are very open to help finance immediate cash flow gaps.In local banks, pay down previous debt before you apply. Also, calculate your cash flow to understand your starting point before heading to the bank.

3 Capital; Consideration of money put towards investment

The level of capital usually considered by lenders toward investment.It includes amount of money and cridet in business.

“W”,What it is? The amount of money invested by the business owner or management team.

“W”,Why it matters?Becasue  Banks are more willing to lend to those who have invested some of their own money into the venture rather than loans. In most cases lenders are not willing to take on 100% of the financial risk.

“H”,How it’s assessed?  The amount of money the borrower or management team has invested in the business help to assessed.

“H”,How to master it? In many cases 70% of small-business owners use personal savings to start their business.


4. COLLATORAL;Secures the loan with the assurance of assets

The assurance of assets need to secure the loans.It includes the recurity,back up sources requires.

“W”,What it is? Assets that can be pledged as security.

“W”,Why it matters? Becasue collateral acts a backup source if the borrower cannot repay a loan.

“H”,How it’s assessed? Hard assets such as real estate and equipment; working capital, such as accounts receivable and inventory; and a borrower’s home that also can be counted as collateral.

“H”,How to master it? By picking the right business structure can help protect your personal assets from being used as collateral if you’re sued or if a lender is trying to collect. Making your company a legal entity will help you mitigate the risk.


5. CONDITIONS;Reffers how the buyer intends to use the money

Lenders in almost many cases put conditions to borrowers intends to use the money.

“W”,What it is? The business will use the loan and how that could be affected by economic or industry factors.

“W”,Why it matters?BEcasue  To ensure that loans are repaid, banks want to lend to businesses operating under favorable conditions. They want to identify risks and protect themselves accordingly.

“H”,How it’s assessed: A review of the competitive landscape, supplier and customer relationships, and macroeconomic and industry-specific issues to ensure that risks are identified and mitigated.

“H”,How to master it? You can not control the economy, but you can plan. Although it might seem counterintuitive, apply for a line of credit when your business is strong.