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Industrial engineering

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part two)

ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING (Part two)

Some of the major functions of industrial engineers involve the following:

  • Designing integrated systems of people, technology, process, and methods.
  • Developing performance modelling, measurement, and evaluation for systems.
  • Developing and maintaining quality standards for industry and business.
  • Applying production principles to pursue improvements in service organizations.
  • Incorporating technology effectively into work processes.
  • Developing cost mitigation, avoidance, or containment strategies.
  • Improving overall productivity of integrated systems of people, materials, and processes.
  • Recognizing and incorporate factors affecting performance of a composite system.
  • Planning, organizing, scheduling, and controlling production and service projects.
  • Organizing teams to improve efficiency and effectiveness of and organization.
  • Installing technology to facilitate work flow.
  • Enhancing information flow to facilitate smooth operations of systems.
  • Coordinating materials and equipment for effective systems performance.
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Industrial engineering

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING?

WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING?

Industrial engineering can be described as the practical application of combination of engineering fields, together with the principles of scientific management. It is the engineering of work processes and the application of engineering methods, practices, and knowledge to production and service enterprises. Industrial engineering places a strong emphasis on an understanding of workers and their needs in order to increase and improve production and service activities. Industrial engineering activities and techniques include the following:

  • Designing jobs (determining the most economic way to perform work).
  • Setting performance standards and benchmarks for quality, quantity, and cost.
  • Designing and installing facilities.

An important aspect of industrial engineering is its concern with the human element in industrial processes. The classical industrial engineering of the late 19th and early 20th centuries emphasized time studies, work sampling, methods engineering, costing methods, and employee incentives to make human interaction with industrial processes cost effective and reliable. Modern industrial engineering, in addition to the classical methods, deals with mathematical process modelling, management science methods, automation, and robotics. The use of advanced mathematical methods has become possible with the advent of computers.

Mathematical process modelling allows the consideration of all available information on a process and the prediction of outcomes for given inputs and process parameters. The work of industrial engineers is varied and ranges from practical aspects of data gathering and analysis to the use of advanced mathematical methods of process simulation and optimization, as firms seek to reduce costs and increase productivity. Industrial engineers are in demand in all industries, ranging from manufacturing to service enterprises.

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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING – WHAT IS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING?

INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING – WHAT IS SYSTEMS ENGINEERING?

Systems engineering involves a recognition, appreciation, and integration of all aspects of an organization or a facility. A system is defined as a collection of interrelated elements working together in synergy to produce a composite output that is greater than the sum of the individual outputs of the components. A system view of a process facilitates a comprehensive inclusion of all the factors involved in the process. Systems engineering is the application of a multi-faceted problem through a systematic collection and integration of parts of the problem with respect to the lifecycle of the problem. It is the branch of engineering concerned with the development, implementation, and use of large or complex systems.

It focuses on specific goals of a system considering the specifications, prevailing constraints, expected services, possible behaviours, and structure of the system. It also involves a consideration of the activities required to assure that the system’s performance matches the stated goals. Systems engineering addresses the integration of tools, people, and processes required to achieve a cost-effective and timely operation of the system.

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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING – TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part one)

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING – TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part one)

Industrial engineering has a proud heritage with a link that can be traced back to the Industrial Revolution. Although the practice of Industrial Engineering has been in existence for centuries, the work of Frederick Taylor in the early 20th century was the first emergence of the profession. It has been referred to with different names and connotations. Scientific management was one of the original names used to describe what industrial engineers do.

Industry, the root of the profession’s name, clearly explains what the profession is about. The dictionary defines industry generally as the ability to produce and deliver goods and services. The industry in Industrial Engineering can be viewed as the application of skills and cleverness to achieve work objectives. This relates to how human effort is harnessed innovatively to carry out work. Thus, any activity can be defined as industry if it generates a product, be it service or physical product. A systems view of Industrial Engineering encompasses all the details and aspects necessary for applying skills and accuracy to produce work efficiently. Hence the academic curriculum of Industrial Engineering must change, evolve, and adapt to the changing systems environment of the profession.

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Industrial engineering

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING- TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part two)

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING- TIES TO THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION (Part two)

It is widely recognized that the occupational discipline that has contributed the most to the development of modern society is engineering, through its various segments of focus. Engineers design and build the infrastructure that sustains the society. This includes roads, residential and commercial buildings, bridges, canals, tunnels, communication systems, healthcare facilities, schools, habitats, transportation systems, and factories. The Industrial Engineering process of systems integration facilitates the success of these infrastructures. In this sense, the scope of Industrial and Systems Engineering spans all the levels of activity, task, job, project, program, process, system, enterprise, and society.

It is essential to recognize the alliance between industry and Industrial Engineering as the core basis for the profession. The profession has branched off on too many different tangents over the years. Hence, it has witnessed the emergence of Industrial Engineering professionals who claim sole allegiance to some narrow line of practice, focus, or specialization rather than the core profession itself. Industry is the original basis of Industrial Engineering and it should be preserved as the core focus. This should be supported by the different areas of specialization. While it is essential that we extend the scope of Industrial Engineering to other domains, it should be realized that over-divergence of practice will not sustain the profession. A fragmented profession cannot survive for long. The incorporation of systems can help to bind everything together.

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Industrial engineering

WHAT IS OPERATIONAL OR OPERATIONS RESEARCH?

WHAT IS OPERATIONAL OR OPERATIONS RESEARCH?

Operational Research (OR) is the use of advanced analytical techniques to improve decision making. It is sometimes known as Operations Research, Management Science or Industrial Engineering. People with skills in OR hold jobs in decision support, business analytics, marketing analysis and logistics planning – as well as jobs with OR in the title.

WHY IS OR NEEDED?

Because it makes sense to make the best use of available resources. Today’s global markets and instant communications mean that customers expect high-quality products and services when they need them, where they need them. Organizations, whether public or private, need to provide these products and services as effectively and efficiently as possible. This requires careful planning and analysis – the hallmarks of good OR. This is usually based on process modelling, analysis of options or business analytics.

EXAMPLES OF OR IN ACTION

  • Scheduling: of aircrews and the fleet for airlines, of vehicles in supply chains, of orders in a factory and of operating theatres in a hospital.
  • Facility planning: computer simulations of airports for the rapid and safe processing of travellers, improving appointments systems for medical practice.
  • Planning and forecasting: identifying possible future developments in telecommunications, deciding how much capacity is needed in a holiday business.
  • Yield management: setting the prices of airline seats and hotel rooms to reflect changing demand and the risk of no shows.
  • Credit scoring: deciding which customers offer the best prospects for credit companies.
  • Marketing: evaluating the value of sale promotions, developing customer profiles and computing the life-time value of a customer.
  • Defence and peace keeping: finding ways to deploy troops rapidly.
  • Some OR methods and techniques
  • Computer simulation: allowing you to try out approaches and test ideas for improvement.
  • Optimization: narrowing your choices to the very best when there are so many feasible options that comparing them one by one is difficult.
  • Probability and statistics: helping you measure risk, mine data to find valuable connections and insights in business analytics, test conclusions, and make reliable forecasts.
  • Problem structuring: helpful when complex decisions are needed in situations with many stakeholders and competing interests.
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Industrial engineering

HUMAN FACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

HUMAN FACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

Human factors is a science that investigates human behavioural, cognitive, and physical abilities and limitations in order to understand how individual and teams will interact with products and systems.

Human factors engineering is the discipline that takes this knowledge and uses it to specify, design, and test systems to optimize safety, productivity, effectiveness, and satisfaction.

Human factors is important to industrial and systems engineering because of the prevalence of humans within industrial systems. It is humans who, for the most part, are called on to design, manufacture, operate, monitor, maintain, and repair industrial systems. In each of these cases, human factors should be uses to ensure that the design will meet system requirements in performance, productivity, quality, reliability, and safety.

The importance of including human factors in systems design cannot be overemphasized. There are countless examples that illustrate its importance for systems performance. Mackenzie found in 1994 that in a survey of 1100 computer-related fatalities between 1979 and 1992. 92% could be attributed to failures in the interaction between a human and computer. The extend of the 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant was largely due to human factors challenges, almost resulting in a disastrous nuclear catastrophe. The infamous butterfly ballot problem in Florida in the 2000 U.S. presidential election is a clear example of an inadequate system interface yielding remarkably poor performance. Web sites such as baddesigns.com and thisisbrokenn.com provide extensive listings of designs from everyday life that suffer from poor consideration of human factors. Neophytes often refer to human factors as common sense. However, the prevalence of poor design suggests that human factors sense is not as common as one might think. The consequences of poor human factors design can be inadequate system performance, reduced product sales, significant product damage, and human injury.

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Commercial Real Estate Property

What Is The Real Estate Nature And System?

What Is The Real Estate Nature And System?


The Real Estate Nature And System

A term real estate is use for property consisting of land and building both residential land, flats, houses bungalows and farm houses etc and commercial it includes land for business purposes, flats for rents, shops and commercial plazas.The main purpose of commercial properties to earn profits on investment. People either buy for residential or commercial included in realty. 

The Word Realtor Or Realty or Real Estate 

Realty or realtor both are the short terms of real estate. Realty is the short word use for real estate and real estate means the residential and commercial properties includes shops,flats,houses,land,plot and shopping malls etc. In modern era real estate is profitable and risk free investment where people can use their investment to increase the profit. We can say people should invest rather than save money at home or bank. Saving can not double your money while investment can increase your assets. Moreover, It is a low risk investment where you have narrow margin of losing your money. In modern days, real estate work done by professionals who have a specific qualification in the field of work.You can find a lot of information about investment on search engines.  

Property Finder Websites 

A term property finder websites is used for specific websites to find residential and commercial properties.Websites use to describe properties with sizes,location and owner contact numbers.There are different websites related to specifically realty i.e. Property Finder, Gumtree, Right Move, Zameen.com, and most individuals have their own work websites for work.Further we will discuss later in our sales and marketing articles about  real estate websites. As we are living in global world where people can move their assets anywhere around the world in legal ways. So as an individual you can invest your money anywhere in the world.

Reward on Real Estate Investment

 

Reward is something which individuals receive on their hardwork ,time or investment.Real estate is the market where people sales and purchases different properties include shops,lands,houses,flats and commercial properties.Some people buy properties for their own living and business purposes.Investment is the term use for people who like to invest their capital in real estate properties known as investors or real estate investors.Different countries give rewards on your investments in the share of nationalities, some ask you for a small profit on your investment and you can take your profit freely wherever you want. As real estate is a proper channel of investments so different countries made legal laws about real estate investment. It is a legal term used in jurisdictions whose legal system is derived from English common law, such as India, the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand. while a common practice for an intermediary to provide real estate owners with dedicated sales and marketing support in exchange for commission. 

United States of Amercia

The United States of America is the biggest market of real estate where realestate practice on highly skilled and professional levels.In North America, This intermediary is referred to as a real estate broker (or realtor), whilst in the United Kingdom, The intermediary would be referred to as an estate agent. In Australia the intermediary is referred to as a real estate agent or real estate representative or the agent.   

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Industrial engineering

EARLY ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

EARLY ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING

Before entering into the history of the profession, it is important to note that the birth and evolution of industrial engineering are analogous to those of its engineering predecessors. Even though there are centuries old examples of early engineering practice and accomplishments, such as the Pyramids, the Great Wall of China, and the Roman construction projects, it was not until the eighteenth century that the first engineering schools appeared in France. The need for greater efficiency in the design and analysis of bridges, roads, and buildings resulted in principles of early engineering concerned primarily with these topics being taught first in military academies (military engineering). The application of these principles to non-military or civilian endeavors led to the term civil engineering. Interrelated advancements in the fields of physics and mathematics laid the groundwork for the development and application of mechanical principles. The need for improvements in the design and analysis of materials and devices such as pumps and engines resulted in the emergence of mechanical engineering as a distinct field in the early nineteenth century. Similar circumstances, albeit for different technologies, can be ascribed to the emergence and development of electrical engineering and chemical engineering. As has been the case with all these fields, industrial engineering developed initially from empirical evidence and understanding and then from research to develop a more scientific base.

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Commercial Real Estate Property

How To Eat Dry Fruit On Real Estate Investment?


How To Eat Dry Fruit On Real Estate Investment?

Real estate is a wide sector of investing for your investment. Real estate investing includes the purchases and sales of property on a regular base, ownership, management or rental of lands, houses, shops plazas and apartments for earning profit on your actual investment. There are different types of investment practice in the modern real estate industry like countries USA, Canada, EU, UK, Pakistan, India,China and Dubai etc Currently, Paying high rates of return on your investment. To eat quality dry fruit on investment, an investor needs to understand the system of the real estate market. Usually, People around the world throw money on their own in the property and waiting so long to return. Because the lack of knowledge its expected and an investor can not able to eat quality fruit. Realty property as a part of real estate investment strategy is generally considered to be a sub-specialty of real estate investing called real estate development. Real estate investment can be fruitful if the market is good.Whereas, the best time to invest when the market is low if an investor is planning for long term investment. Recession period is the best time if you are planning for long term like 5 years plus. The reason of this investment is good because as an investor, you can spend less money from market rates and return on investment ROI can go up to 25%, which is the handsome amount of investment within 5 years period time. While this ROI can increase 50% or more if investor invest in developing real estate market.

Developing Realty As An Investment

Developing a real estate market where residential and commercial market in the developing process, the amount of development and charges are less and the cost of land is also low. In developing realty investor need to invest in residential real estate because it takes a short period of time; one to three year maximum. Investor can invest from less capital like 15% to 20% on top and the rest can be paid on investments. Investment usually returns maximum 5% to 15% return in one year to 3 years. It may also depend on the work progress of the area. In developing real estate sector, As investor if you are planning for investment in commercial sector then you have to keep in mind that it is a long term investment up to 5 years plus. In developing realty commercial property market only rise if residential property is ready and people are starting to build houses and living then commercial activities start.In developing realty investment can be long 5 to 10 years. However, The ROI can be 100% plus in such areas So we can say that it can be a long term investment and also huge ROI for investment. It also depends on the work progress of the area.


Developed Realty As An Investment

Developed realty means a real estate sector where both residential and commercial realty fully function. Developed realty is good for own living because its fully functional and always expensive. Developed reality market is good for an own business, rental and short term profit.As beginners investor it may not useful.Moreover, There are investor groups called real estate investment groups you can invest with such groups in confirm legal ways.